A polymer electrolyte fuel cell consists of a basic unit integrated into a fuel electrode (anode), a solid polymer membrane (electrolyte), and an air electrode (cathode).
- Hydrogen (H2) divides into electrons (e-) and hydrogen ions (H+).
- Electrons separated from the hydrogen move to the air electrode along an external circuit. This movement of electrons forms a current.
- Hydrogen ions (H+) move toward the air electrode in the electrolyte membrane that separates the fuel electrode from the air electrode.
- Electrons and hydrogen ions reach the air electrode via paths 2 and 3, reacting with oxygen to produce water.