GRI Standards are sustainability reporting standards developed by Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), an international nongovernmental organization (NGO), with the aim of attaining sustainable social development through promoting the compilation of policy measures and policy plans by business corporations, and stepped up efforts to take specific actions to implement the measures and plans. Under the GRI Standards, business corporations are required to identify significant impacts that their activities are expected to have on the economy, environment and society, and report such impacts to the GRI as materiality items. The initial edition of the GRI Guidelines was issued in 2000. The guidelines were revised several times before shifting to the GRI Standards in 2016. Companies are required to disclose “general disclosure items” and “management approach” under universal standards, and items identified as “materiality,” chosen from “economy,” “environment” and “society” under item-by-item standards. GRI Standards, officially called GRI Sustainability Reporting Standards, were issued on July 1, 2018.